The LPC1343 (and newer LPC134x series) has the USB programming built-into ROM, so you can just get a bare chip and program over USB without having to mess around with bootloaders. Though you do need to have an external 12MHz crystal connected, because the USB stuff is the only thing that won't work off the internal crystal (I made that mistake the first time while designing the Forebrain - the internal 12MHz IRC oscillator is fine for taking the chip up to its maximum of 72MHz, but apparently isn't accurate enough to do USB stuff).
And as previous thread posts intimated, our Forebrain dev boards has the LPC1343, and we now have guides and instructions for getting it working on Linux, including an easy way to get around the ROM bug that affects drag & drop on linux and mac. And of course there's our easy-to-use LPC1343 library exclusive to Forebrain (though you could use it with any LPC1343 project)
As for compiler, it's based on GCC, and you'll be happy to know that we just use a Notepad++ text editor with a plugin that shows a console window at the bottom, and run the compiler through that (we provide a Makefile and everything so it's just "make all" once you've got the compilers installed).
Unfortunately it's an odd time for us, we had to rush to get our new website up and running for our quadrotor kickstarter project, and that meant that we didn't have time to grab all the Forebrain library reference and guides, and also the web shop. New website's here: http://www.uair.co/
but I'll be sorting out the Forebrain library reference and guides this weekend (hopefully).
Since we don't have a shop running you can't actually buy a Forebrain from us, and since we're lowering our prices after the Kickstarter, I'm feel it would be unfair for me to try to sell you Forebrain at its current price. So I'll tell you what, since you obviously know what you're doing, and you're exactly the kind of person Forebrain is designed for, and for this one-time only offer, I'm going to send you one for free. PM me, or use one of the email contact addresses on our website and we'll arrange things from there.
Also worth reading, we did similar for this individual: viewtopic.php?f=5&t=2268
and he has kindly provided a bunch of stuff for Linux on there as well.
Oh, also might be of interest is the LPC1347, has some REALLY neat features and improvements over the LPC1343 especially on the USB side of things (build in FULL USB stack!), we're working on libraries right now, and in the future might upgrade Forebrain to use that, but that's a few months away. Good luck to you.